Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle, DL (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930) was a Scottish author most noted for his stories about the detective Sherlock Holmes, which are generally considered a major innovation in the field of crime fiction, and for the adventures of Professor Challenger. He was a prolific writer whose other works include science fiction stories, historical novels, plays and romances, poetry, and non-fiction.
Arthur Conan Doyle was born on 22 May 1859, in Edinburgh, Scotland, to an English father of Irish descent, Charles Altamont Doyle, and an Irish mother, née Mary Foley, who had married in 1855. Although he is now referred to as "Conan Doyle", the origin of this compound surname is uncertain. Conan Doyle's father was a chronic alcoholic, and was the only member of his family who, apart from fathering a brilliant son, never accomplished anything of note.
Conan Doyle was sent to the Roman Catholic Jesuit preparatory school Hodder Place, Stonyhurst, at the age of eight. He then went on to Stonyhurst College, but by the time he left the school in 1875, he had rejected Christianity to become an agnostic.
From 1876 to 1881, he studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh, including a period working in the town of Aston (now a district of Birmingham). While studying, he also began writing short stories; his first published story appeared in Chambers's Edinburgh Journal before he was 20. Following his term at university, he served as a ship's doctor on a voyage to the West African coast. He completed his doctorate on the subject of tabes dorsalis in 1885.
In 1882, he joined former classmate George Budd as his partner at a medical practice in Plymouth, but their relationship proved difficult, and Conan Doyle soon left to set up an independent practice. Arriving in Portsmouth in June of that year with less than £10 to his name, he set up a medical practice at 1 Bush Villas in Elm Grove, Southsea. The practice was initially not very successful; while waiting for patients, he again began writing stories. His first significant work was A Study in Scarlet, which appeared in Beeton's Christmas Annual for 1887 and featured the first appearance of Sherlock Holmes, who was partially modelled after his former university professor, Joseph Bell to whom Conan Doyle wrote "It is most certainly to you that I owe Sherlock Holmes...round the centre of deduction and inference and observation which I have heard you inculcate I have tried to build up a man." Future short stories featuring Sherlock Holmes were published in the English Strand Magazine. Interestingly, Robert Louis Stevenson was able, even in far away Samoa, to recognise the strong similarity between the Scottish physician Joseph Bell and Sherlock Holmes: "my compliments on your very ingenious and very interesting adventures of Sherlock Holmes ... can this be my old friend Joe Bell?" Other authors sometimes suggest additional influences e.g. the famous Edgar Allan Poe character, C. Auguste Dupin.
While living in Southsea, he played football for an amateur side, Portsmouth Association Football Club, as a goalkeeper. (This club disbanded in 1894 and had no connection with the Portsmouth F.C. of today, which was founded in 1898.) Conan Doyle was also a keen cricketer and, between 1899 and 1907, he played 10 first-class matches for the MCC. His highest score was 43 against London County in 1902. He was an occasional bowler who took just one first-class wicket. Also a keen golfer, Conan Doyle was elected captain of Crowborough Beacon Golf Club, East Sussex, for the year 1910.
In 1885, he married Louisa (or Louise) Hawkins, known as "Touie", who suffered from tuberculosis and died on 4 July 1906. He married Jean Elizabeth Leckie in 1907, whom he had first met and fallen in love with in 1897, but had maintained a platonic relationship with her while his first wife Louisa was still alive, out of loyalty to her. Jean died in London on 27 June 1940.
Conan Doyle had five children, two with his first wife (1) Mary Louise (28 January 1889 – 12 June 1976) and (2) Arthur Alleyne Kingsley, known as Kingsley (15 November 1892 – 28 October 1918), and three with his second wife, (3) Denis Percy Stewart (17 March 1909 – 9 March 1955), second husband in 1936 of Georgian Princess Nina Mdivani (circa 1910 – 19 February 1987; former sister-in-law of Barbara Hutton), (4) Adrian Malcolm (1910 – 1970) and (5) Jean Lena Annette (1912 – 1997).
In 1890, Conan Doyle studied the eye in Vienna; he moved to London in 1891 to set up a practice as an ophthalmologist. He wrote in his autobiography that not a single patient crossed his door. This gave him more time for writing, and in November 1891 he wrote to his mother: "I think of slaying Holmes ... and winding him up for good and all. He takes my mind from better things." His mother responded, saying, "You may do what you deem fit, but the crowds will not take this lightheartedly." In December 1893, he did so in order to dedicate more of his time to more "important" works — his historical novels.
Holmes and Moriarty apparently plunged to their deaths together down a waterfall in the story "The Final Problem". Public outcry led him to bring the character back; Conan Doyle returned to the story in "The Adventure of the Empty House", with the explanation that only Moriarty had fallen but, since Holmes had other dangerous enemies, he had arranged to be temporarily "dead" also. Holmes ultimately appeared in a total of 56 short stories and four Conan Doyle novels (he has since appeared in many novels and stories by other authors).
Following the Boer War in South Africa at the turn of the 20th century and the condemnation from around the world over the United Kingdom's conduct, Conan Doyle wrote a short pamphlet titled, The War in South Africa: Its Cause and Conduct, which justified the UK's role in the Boer war and was widely translated.
Conan Doyle believed that it was this pamphlet that resulted in his being knighted in 1902 and appointed Deputy-Lieutenant of Surrey. He also, in 1900, wrote the longer book, The Great Boer War. During the early years of the 20th century, Sir Arthur twice ran for Parliament as a Liberal Unionist, once in Edinburgh and once in the Hawick Burghs, but although he received a respectable vote, he was not elected.
Conan Doyle was involved in the campaign for the reform of the Congo Free State, led by the journalist E.D. Morel and the diplomat Roger Casement. During 1909, he wrote The Crime of the Congo, a long pamphlet in which he denounced the horrors in that country. He became acquainted with Morel and Casement and it is possible that together with Bertram Fletcher Robinson (see ), they inspired several characters in the novel, The Lost World (1912).
He broke with both when Morel became one of the leaders of the pacifist movement during the First World War, and when Casement was convicted of treason against the UK during the Easter Rising. Conan Doyle tried, unsuccessfully, to save Casement from the death penalty, arguing that he had been driven mad and was not responsible for his actions.
Conan Doyle was also a fervent advocate of justice and personally investigated two closed cases, which led to two men being exonerated of the crimes they were accused of. The first case, in 1906, involved a shy half-British, half-Indian lawyer named George Edalji, who had allegedly penned threatening letters and mutilated animals. Police were set on Edalji's conviction, even though the mutilations continued after their suspect was jailed.
It was partially as a result of this case that the Court of Criminal Appeal was established in 1907, so not only did Conan Doyle help George Edalji, his work helped establish a way to correct other miscarriages of justice. The story of Conan Doyle and Edalji is told in fictional form in Julian Barnes' 2005 novel, Arthur & George.
The second case, that of Oscar Slater, a German Jew and gambling-den operator convicted of bludgeoning an 82-year-old woman in Glasgow in 1908, excited Conan Doyle's curiosity because of inconsistencies in the prosecution case and a general sense that Slater was framed.
After the death of his wife Louisa in 1906, and the death of his son Kingsley, his brother Innes, his two brothers-in-law (one of whom was E. W. Hornung, the creator of the literary character Raffles), and his two nephews shortly after World War I, Conan Doyle sank into depression. He found solace supporting Spiritualism and its alleged scientific proof of existence beyond the grave.
Kingsley Doyle died from pneumonia on 28 October 1918, which he contracted during his convalescence after being seriously wounded during the 1916 Battle of the Somme. Brigadier-General Innes Doyle died in February 1919, also from pneumonia. Sir Arthur became involved with Spiritualism to the extent that he wrote a Professor Challenger novel on the subject, The Land of Mist.
His book, The Coming of the Fairies (1921) shows he was apparently convinced of the veracity of the Cottingley Fairies photographs, which he reproduced in the book, together with theories about the nature and existence of fairies and spirits.
His work on this topic was one of the reasons that one of his short story collections, The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, was banned in the Soviet Union in 1929 for supposed occultism. This ban was later lifted.Template:When Russian actor Vasily Livanov later received an Order of the British Empire for his portrayal of Sherlock Holmes.
Conan Doyle was friends for a time with the American magician Harry Houdini, who himself became a prominent opponent of the Spiritualist movement in the 1920s following the death of his beloved mother. Although Houdini insisted that Spiritualist mediums employed trickery (and consistently attempted to expose them as frauds), Conan Doyle became convinced that Houdini himself possessed supernatural powers, a view expressed in Conan Doyle's The Edge of the Unknown. Houdini was apparently unable to convince Conan Doyle that his feats were simply magic tricks, leading to a bitter public falling out between the two.
Richard Milner, an American historian of science, has presented a case that Conan Doyle may have been the perpetrator of the Piltdown Man hoax of 1912, creating the counterfeit hominid fossil that fooled the scientific world for over 40 years. Milner says that Conan Doyle had a motive, namely revenge on the scientific establishment for debunking one of his favourite psychics, and that The Lost World contains several encrypted clues regarding his involvement in the hoax.
Samuel Rosenberg's 1974 book Naked is the Best Disguise purports to explain how Conan Doyle left, throughout his writings, open clues that related to hidden and suppressed aspects of his mentality. Template:Clear
Conan Doyle was found clutching his chest in the hall of "Windlesham", his house in Crowborough, East Sussex, on 7 July 1930. He soon died of his heart attack, aged 71. His last words were directed toward his wife: "You are wonderful." The epitaph on his gravestone in the churchyard at Minstead in the New Forest, Hampshire, reads:
ARTHUR CONAN DOYLE
PATRIOT, PHYSICIAN & MAN OF LETTERS
Undershaw, the home Conan Doyle had built near Hindhead, south of London, and lived in for at least a decade, was a hotel and restaurant from 1924 until 2004. It was then bought by a developer, and has been empty since then while conservationists and Conan Doyle fans fight to preserve it.
A statue honours Conan Doyle at Crowborough Cross in Crowborough, where Conan Doyle lived for 23 years. There is also a statue of Sherlock Holmes in Picardy Place, Edinburgh, Scotland, close to the house where Conan Doyle was born.
- Main article: Canon of Sherlock Holmes
- A Study in Scarlet (1887)
- The Sign of Four (1890)
- The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes (1892)
- The Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes (1894)
- The Hound of the Baskervilles (1902)
- The Return of Sherlock Holmes (1904)
- The Valley of Fear (1915)
- His Last Bow (1917)
- The Case-Book of Sherlock Holmes (1927)
- The Lost World (1912)
- The Poison Belt (1913)
- The Land of Mist (1926)
- "When the World Screamed" (1928)
- "The Disintegration Machine" (1929)
- Micah Clarke (1888)
- The White Company (1891)
- The Great Shadow (1892)
- The Refugees (publ. 1893, written 1892)
- Rodney Stone (1896)
- Uncle Bernac (1897)
- Sir Nigel (1906)
- J. Habakuk Jephson's Statement (1884), a story based on the fate of the ship Mary Celeste
- The Mystery of Cloomber (1889)
- The Firm of Girdlestone (1890)
- The Captain of the Polestar, and other tales (1890)
- The Great Keinplatz Experiment (1890)
- The Doings of Raffles Haw (1891)
- Beyond the City (1892)
- Lot No. 249 (1892)
- Jane Annie, or the Good Conduct Prize (1893)
- My Friend the Murderer and Other Mysteries and Adventures (1893)
- Round The Red Lamp (1894)
- The Parasite (1894)
- The Stark Munro Letters (1895)
- Songs of Action (1898)
- The Tragedy of The Korosko (1898)
- A Duet (1899)
- The Great Boer War (1900)
- The Green Flag and Other Stories of War and Sport (1900)
- The Exploits of Brigadier Gerard (1903)
- Through the Magic Door (1907)
- Round the Fire Stories (1908)
- The Crime of the Congo (1909)
- The Lost Gallery (1911)
- The Terror of Blue John Gap (1912)
- The Horror of the Heights (1913)
- The British Campaign in France and Flanders: 1914 (1916)
- Danger! and Other Stories (1918)
- The New Revelation (1918)
- The Vital Message (1919)
- The Great Keinplatz Experiment and Other Tales of Twilight and the Unseen (1919)
- The Coming of the Fairies (1921)
- Tales of Terror & Mystery (1923)
- Memories and Adventures (1924)
- The Black Doctor and Other Tales of Terror and Mystery (1925)
- The Dealings of Captain Sharkey (1925)
- The Man from Archangel and Other Tales of Adventure (1925)
- The History of Spiritualism (1926)
- The Maracot Deep (1929)
- American horror writers Christopher Golden and Thomas E. Sniegoski feature Arthur Conan Doyle as a protagonist in their fictional “The Menagerie” series.
- Physician writer
- The Toronto Public Library has an extensive collection of Arthur Conan Doyle's works.
- William Gillette, a personal friend who performed the most famous stage-version of Sherlock Holmes.
Notes and referencesEdit
- ↑ Template:Cite book Template:Cite book
- ↑ Stashower says that the name originated from his great-uncle Michael Conan, a distinguished journalist, from whom Arthur and his elder sister, Annette, received the compound surname of "Conan Doyle" (Stashower 20–21). The same source points out that in 1885 he was describing himself on the brass nameplate outside his house, and on his doctoral thesis, as "A. Conan Doyle". However, other sources (such as the 1901 census) indicate that Conan Doyle's surname was "Doyle", and that the form "Conan Doyle" was only used as a surname in his later years.Template:Fact
- ↑ Stashower 30–31.
- ↑ Available at the Edinburgh Research Archive.
- ↑ Arthur Conan Doyle & Plymouth
- ↑ Stashower 52–59.
- ↑ Stashower 55, 58–59.
- ↑ Independent, 7 August 2006
- ↑ Letter from R L Stevenson to Conan Doyle April 5 1893 The Letters of Robert Louis Stevenson Volume 2/Chapter XII
- ↑ Sova, Dawn B. Edgar Allan Poe: A to Z. New York: Checkmark Books, 2001. pp. 162-163. ISBN 081604161X
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 Leeman, Sue, "Sherlock Holmes fans hope to save Conan Doyle's house from developers", Associated Press, 28 July 2006.
- ↑ 12.0 12.1 Kalush, William, and Larry Sloman, The Secret Life of Houdini: The Making of America's First Superhero, Atria Books, 2006. ISBN 0743272072.
- ↑ Highfield, Roger, "The mysterious case of Conan Doyle and Piltdown Man.", The Daily Telegraph, Thursday 20 March 1997.
- ↑ Stashower, p. 439
- ↑ 15.00 15.01 15.02 15.03 15.04 15.05 15.06 15.07 15.08 15.09 15.10 15.11 15.12 15.13 15.14 Bibliographic information from: Template:Cite book
- ↑ http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1026414?referer=di&ht=edition
- Sir Arthur Conan Doyle - His Life, All His Works, And More
- Arthur Conan Doyle: Cricket Statistics
- Film footage of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle discussing both Sherlock Holmes & Spiritualism
- Arthur Conan Doyle Online Exhibition
- Conan Doyle in Birmingham
- Conan Doyle's cricket record at CricketArchive
- The Arthur Conan Doyle Society
- The Chronicles of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
- The Sherlock Holmes Museum
- "A Case of Considerable Interest" an exhibition celebrating the 35th anniversary of the Arthur Conan Doyle Collection of the Toronto Public Library
Real life cases
- Conan Doyle and the Parson's Son -The George Edalji case
- The George Edalji Case
- The Oscar Slater Case
- Template:Gutenberg author
- Works at Project Gutenberg Australia
- Free to read on a cell phone - Conan Doyle works.
- "Lot No. 429," from Round the Red Lamp and Other Medical Writings, 1904.
- Online works available from The University of Adelaide Library
- Sherlock Holmes: Audio books
- The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, full text with embedded audio (PDF).
- Template:Cite web
- Works of Arthur Conan Doyle available as freely downloadable eBooks at University of Virginia EText Center
- Template:Isfdb name
- Letter as foreword to pamphlet "The blue Island" by Estelle Stead
- Rare film